WAEC GCE 2023 (First Series) Agric. Science & Literature Answers – Jan/Feb Expo



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(i) Government should erect as many market infrastructures as possible
(ii) Government should stabilize prices of farm produce in the county.

(i) Storage facilities should be provided by the government at subsidized rates.
(ii) Provision of storage chemicals such as fumigants.

(i) Construction of new feeder roads to open up the rural areas.
(ii) Construction of water ways to link up the riverine areas.

(i) Rural farmers should be trained on modern system of farming.
(ii) Mass literacy programme should be embarrassed upon by the government. E.g. Nomadic education.

(i) Flooding should be avoided.
(ii) Terracing and strip cropping should also br practiced.

(Choose Any FOUR)
(i) Determination of size of farmland: Farm survey helps to determine the size or hecterage of farmland.

(ii) For Feasibility Studies: Farm survey is also important or useful for the preparation of feasibility studies.

(iii) Proper Use Of Farmland: Farm survey enables farmers to make proper use of land.

(iv) Planning Of Farmstead: Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farmstead.

(v) Projection Of Yield: The yield or productivity of farmland can be projected


(Pick Any FOUR)
(i) Broadcasting: spreading the fertilizer evenly over the soil surface and then incorporating it into the soil with a cultivator or tiller.

(i) Banding: placing the fertilizer in narrow bands alongside the plants or seeds, which allows for more efficient uptake by the roots.

(iii) Side-dressing: applying the fertilizer to the soil in a band near the plants at a later stage of growth.

(iv) Foliar application: spraying the fertilizer solution directly onto the leaves of the plants.

(v) Drip irrigation: incorporating the fertilizer into the irrigation water and delivering it directly to the roots through a drip irrigation system.

Alley farming is a type of agroforestry system in which crops are grown in the alleys between rows of trees to provide multiple benefits, such as improving soil fertility, providing shade and wind protection for crops, and improving the microclimate for plant growth.

While Ley farming, also known as ley grazing or pasture cropping, is a type of farming system that involves planting crops in pastures or fields that are used for grazing livestock.

(i) Indiscriminate felling of trees is prohibited; only licensed timber dealers have the same mandate to cut only mature trees.
(ii) Illegal hunting is prohibited.
(iii) The prohibition of bush burning and creation of fire around the forest.
(iv) Polluting or dumping waste in forests is prohibited.
(v) Destroying or altering natural habitats in forests is prohibited.

(Pick Any THREE)
(i) Drip irrigation
(ii) Sprinkler irrigation
(iii) Hand-watering
(iv) Flood irrigation
(v) Sub-irrigation


Macro-nutrients are the chemical substances required by our body in large quantities daily for the proper functioning of the body WHILE Micro-nutrients are the organic substances required by the body in small quantities or diminutive.

(i) Zinc
(ii) Chlorine
(iii) Manganese

(i) It helps in the preservation of characteristics of the plants through successive generation
(ii) Seedless plants can be grown through vegetative reproduction
(iii) It is a cheaper, easier and more rapid method of plant propagation.

(i) Vegetative propagated plants are short-lived, and small compared to seed propagated plants.
(ii) No new varieties can be produced
(iii) More susceptible to diseases as the entire plant may get affected as there is no genetic variation.

Land Area = 4.9 hectares
= 49000m²
Area of spacing = (7×7)m²
= 49m²
Total number of seedlings transplanted = (49000)/49
= 1000seedlings

Rate of fertilizer applied = 350kg/ha
Total quality of fertilizer applied = (350×4.9)ha
= 1,715kg


-Dig the silage pit
-Cut the fresh grass/forage before flowering
-Wilt for few hours/day
-Collect the wilted forage and lay it at the bottom of the pit to a reasonable level
-Add ash/urea sprinkled on it
-Compress and add another layer of wilted forage, compress and add further ash/urea-fertilizer
-Add more wilted forage, ash/urea and compress until pit is filled
-Finally compress and then cover with tarpaulin or plastic polythene sheet
-Leave to ferment with minimum of 2 – 4 weeks

(ii)Chamaecyparis obtusa
(iii)Sida acuta
(iv)Talinum fruticosum

(i)earing disease-resistant stock
(ii)carrying out rotational grazing
(iii)feeding balanced ration
(iv)vaccinate their animals if possible and necessary.
(v)Segregate sick animals and call a veterinarian for advice.

(i)rodents like giant rats
(ii)grass cutter.
(iii) nematodes and birds.


Depreciation refers to the reduction in the value of a fixed asset over time due to wear and tear, obsolescence, or other factors. It is a non-cash expense that is recorded on a company’s financial statements to reflect the declining value of an asset.

Farm Inventory is the listing of all assets on the farm and their money worth or value. OR It is a record that gives a full list of assets and liability of a farm in both physical and monetary terms.

Balance Sheet also known as Net worth statement is the capital or financial position of the farm at the end of the accounting period, usually a year.

(i) Good communication skills
(ii) Knowledgeable in their field of work
(iii) Ability to adapt to changing situations
(iv) Good organizational and planning skills
(v) Patience and empathy
(vi) Ability to work well with people from diverse backgrounds
(vii) Problem-solving and decision-making skills
(viii) Good interpersonal and leadership skills.

(Pick Any THREE)
(i) Price
(ii) Level of Technology
(iii) Cost of Production
(iv) Weather
(v) Taxation

(i) Through urination
(ii) Through respiration
(iii) Through perspiration





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